Sour-Pickled Mustard Green Stems: Touched by Time

I’ve met picklers and preservers in some strange places. A water pump station in the middle of the Takalamakan Desert still tops the list. But yesterday, sitting in a coffee shop in an Yunnan tourist town, I was introduced to a Heshun pickler through a Chongqing barista. I’m now her student.

Heshun is a Han Chinese town in a frontier area with many minorities. Established at the beginning of the Ming dynasty (c. 1350-1360) and first populated by families of soldiers given titles by the Hong Wu Emperor, the townspeople and farmers today are still predominantly Han. The buildings, alleys and surrounding countryside are all very picturesque. Like Lijiang and other “ancient towns,” it has become the recipient of tourist investment and promotion.

Since 2003, government and businesses have actively cooperated on projects to redevelope the town and build an economy around tourism. In Summer 2009, a subsidiary of the Yunnan-based Brilliant Group received a credit line of 3.9 billion RMB from the Chengdu branch of Export-Import Bank of China to “transform Heshun into an international tourist destination” in 6 years time. Less than 2 months later, the New York Times featured the “rural charms and ancient arcitecture” in a slideshow on its travel blog.

In many ways, Heshun is a Lijiang-lite, retaining that essence that attracted investment in the first place without reaching Lijiang’s extreme of commercialization. In Heshun, many townspeople still live in the town. In the surrounding fields, there are still peasants harvesting rice. People ride in and out of the area on motorcycles to tend their fields. Many important Qing and Republican era buildings are open to the public (with a 80RMB ticket), including the old clan halls and the town’s library. Older residences are quite common in back alleys. Nevertheless, some newly renovated buildings now line these streets, and an overwhelming number of jade sellers have rented many of these spaces. Skirting the ancient town is a long line of bars in old looking buildings. Overall, it seems to be a few steps behind the Lijiang path of ancient town development

Being a good tourist, I found my place to park disposable income, skipping the beer and the precious stones for a coffee at the YLK Coffee Shop (云南小粒咖啡). YLK is run by two cousins from Chongqing, both in their late-twenties and serious about developing their business. Yang Chen, the owner, moved to Heshun to open her first shop in 2010. She then brought her cousin, Luo Wenjing, into the business with plans to open a second location. It opened in 2011. They grow their own supply of beans on nearby farms, roasting 4 different blends. I really enjoyed both cups of Typica, one a flatbean, the other round.

When the YLK cousins relocated to Yunnan, they soon met Heshun native, Auntie Zhang. Auntie Zhang, affectionately known as “Daniang,” is a go-to cook for weddings, funerals, and other community affairs. When they first arrived, Daniang arrived at their shop with a gift of pickles to welcome them. So when I mentioned to Yang Chen that I am learning to pickle and preserve foods like Chinese people, her eyes lit up immediately. She said, “You have to meet this lady, she makes great pickles.”

Thirty minutes later, I’m sitting in their other shop with Luo Wenjing, sharing a pot of Typica flatbeans with Daniang and talking pickles. We chatted about mustard green varieties, pickling techniques and local history. Daniang makes really tasty pickled mustard greens. Here’s the plate she brought us to try, which she calls these sour pickled greens (酸腌菜) or salty greens (咸菜):

20131014-123100.jpg

Daniang’s sour pickled mustard greens are similar to those in Yunnan’s markets but taste immeasurably better. Her main ingredients are carrots and long, thick stemmed mustard greens, which people in Yunnan typically call qingcai (青菜). She uses ground red pepper and fennel seed to impart flavor. The greens are sun-dried for a day or two after which the leaves are removed. The stems are washed and then chopped into short strips. The stems are then mixed with rice and salt placed in a crock or piece of pottery then sealed. No water is used. She typically makes 50 pounds per batch, purchased fresh from a nearby village in the 11th and 12th months of the Chinese lunar calendar.

Making these in America will not be easy. In Yunnan, I have encountered an extraordinary diversity of mustard greens. Some are used in cooking, typically boiled or stirfried. Only some are for suitable for making Auntie Zhang’s pickles. Those plants unfit for preservation, she called “fruit mustard greens” (水果青菜). The characteristics of these greens are highly variable, depending on variety. Some are harvested mature, others are harvested only a week or two after sprouting. Some grow tall, others bunch lower to the ground. Whether tall or short, their stems can be thick or thin. Leaf margins can be soft and undulating. Other varities have jagged and incised edges. Getting the right variety is extremely important.

It was sad parting, as I only met her in the last hours before my departure. I have a general understanding and decent notes about how to make sour-pickled-greens, but I’m sure I’ll have more questions. Before parting ways, I asked her if she’d be my “master,” I her student, which after a good laugh she promptly accepted. Come December, I’m sure I’ll have more than a few pickle failures. For now however, thanks to Auntie Zhang’s generosity, I can enjoy the real thing:

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3 thoughts on “Sour-Pickled Mustard Green Stems: Touched by Time

    • That’s a great question. The sheer amount of variation in South Western China’s “qingcai” (青菜) is really quite astounding. There has been a lot of research on the subject, and I’m still sorting through papers on Brassica species, subspecies and cultivars. The short answer? These are brassica plants and almost certainly variants of the species juncea.

      So why the uncertainty? This research process is complicated for quite a few reasons.

      Firstly, local terms for vegetables are not standardized nationally and can refer to different vegetables in different places. This is epitomized in the example of qingcai. In most of China, qingcai can mean all leafy greens as a category. In some places, qingcai refers to brassica rapa var. chinensis, (a.k.a. bok choy, baby bok choy, youcai or Chinese cabbage). In Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and parts of Guangxi, I’ve seen qingcai used to refer to what most likely are diverse cultivars or sub-subspecies of brassica juncea. A blogger from Sichuan clarifies this point in the post “The Mustard Green Clan:”

      在四川,青菜却是专指叶用芥菜,云南人称苦菜。在四川能见到的芥菜品种很多,只是都有不同称谓罢了,很多人估计也不晓得他们竟然是亲戚。
      Source: http://m.blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_62264ea00101fqf8.html#page=5

      As seen above, in Sichuan, the term qingcai refers not to a cultivar of brassica rapa (like in Shanghai and some other places in China) but to one of brassica juncea. More to the point, the qingcai I’ve seen in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou are visably kin to the taller more leafy juncea of Sichuan and nothing like that of the cultivars of brassica rapa.

      Secondly, the english literature fails to adequately incorporate local Chinese terminology. Regional terms and national terms are used side by side. There has been some headway. This pdf from 2001 matches some Chinese terms to their scientific name:
      http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/PDF/PDF08/BRASSICA.pdf
      Yet this piece misleadingly calls brassica rapa var. chinensis “qingcai” (used in Shanghai). The more common term is “youcai” (油菜) or “xiaobaicai” (小白菜). So, I’m left returning to Chinese sources… which are also part of the problem.

      Internet resources are not entirely reliable and I’m currently without access to a comprehensive Chinese library’s e-collection. The Chinese versions of wikipedia and other online encyclopedias have not proven themselves terribly reliable. They do not reflect the incredibly diverse regional cultivars in the brassica family nor do they list regional names for these plants. Latin names are used but not universally, which makes cross referencing impossible. This all makes for a confusing nexus of mistakes, English scientific names, Cantonese romanizations, pinyin transliterations, Chinese colloquial terms (both written on the web, and heard in the field), plus Chinese scientific terms and among other linguistic barriers. I only have my field notes and photographs to rely on for inquiry at some future date.

      But look at these photos:
      http://ongzi-secretgarden.blogspot.com/2013/04/genetic-diversity-of-chinese-vegetable.html

      So, when I talk about qingcai, I’m referring to vegetables closely related to these B. juncea veggies on ongzi’s blog. They most resemble the leucanthus and rugosa cultivars, but not exactly. The qingcai I refer to is found in Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, and Yunnan. In Yunnan, some people also call cultivars of qingcai “xiaokucai” (小苦菜) and “dakucai” (大苦菜). Nailing down the genetic and botanical classification of these vegetables hasn’t been easy, but I’ll hazard a guess and say these veggies are a subspecies or variety of brassica juncea. Most likely, that is.

      Scientific classification aside, the people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou have a highly diverse population of what’s known locally as qingcai. And some of these qingcai make great sour preserved veggies. Mmm…

      ***
      Related miscellany:

      If interested in the history of brassica species and cultivars, I highly recommend reading Cuong Truong’s piece on the subject:
      http://prizedwriting.ucdavis.edu/past/2010-2011/brassica-crops-at-a-glance

      Here’s a highlight from his work, explaining the diversity of Brassica species and cultivars:
      The vast majority of Brassica products are derived from six main species within the genus: Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, and Brassica carnita. From these six species, farmers have utilized or developed many subspecies and cultivars that provide a wide range of leaf, root, stem, flower bud, seed, and oil crops. Since they are so closely related, each Brassica species can easily breed with others and produce viable hybrids; in fact, B. juncea, B. napus, and B. carnita are naturally occurring hybrids of the other three species and have become stable populations (Dixon 2007).

      The site “Flora of China” has a decent English-Chinese section on Chinese vegetables. Here’s the page about Brassica Juncea:
      http://foc.eflora.cn/content.aspx?TaxonId=200009253

      As for the history of Brassica Juncea and its subspecies, Cuong Truong has more on the subject:
      The amphidiploid Brassica species are generally found where their parent species’ territories overlap. The amphidiploid B. Juncea may have resulted from a mixing of B. rapa and B. nigra around Southwest Asia and India (Sauer). Today, India is a major producer of B. juncea as an oilseed and spice crop. Samples of carbonized B. juncea found at ancient sites date back to 2300 BC (Prakash 1980). Vaughn (1977) proposed that the B. juncea could have developed as two separate geographical races from centers of diversity in India and China. His research led him to suggest Indian B. juncea were more closely related to the rapa side, while Chinese B. juncea were more closely related to the nigra side (Vaughn 1977). B.

      ***

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